Cucumber Interview Questions
How to Explain BDD Framework in Interview
The BDD methodology, which offers a framework for writing and organizing automated tests in a way that is concentrated on the behavior of the system, is implemented by the BDD framework. The framework defines test scenarios and procedures using a natural language syntax, which makes it simpler for relevant stakeholders to comprehend and evaluate the tests.
- You can describe the BDD framework in an interview by emphasizing its main characteristics,
- Business stakeholders will find it simple to read and understand test scenarios because they are written in a natural language syntax.
- In order to make sure that the software is created in a way that satisfies the needs of the business, tests are structured around user stories.
- Because tests are automated, testing is sped up and test accuracy is increased.
- BDD frameworks like Cucumber, SpecFlow, and Behave offer a framework for creating and organizing BDD tests.
- In order to offer a comprehensive testing solution, BDD frameworks frequently integrate with other tools, such as test runners and continuous integration tools.
You can show that you comprehend BDD and its advantages in software development by outlining these key features. Additionally, you can give instances of how you’ve applied BDD frameworks to previous projects and the beneficial effects that have had on the projects’ results.
Difference Between Testing and Cucumber
Cucumber is referred to as a testing tool built on a behavior-driven framework, whereas Selenium is described as a browser automation testing tool.
- While Cucumber test scripts are written in plain text language in accordance with Gherkin language rules, Selenium test scripts can be written in Java, C#, etc.
- Conditional statements can be used in Selenium, but they are not allowed in Cucumber.
- Unlike Cucumber, where scenarios are written first and then verified by stakeholders, Selenium scripts are written based on test cases and requirements.
- It takes a lot of work to create and run Selenium scripts, but Cucumber makes it simple to write and run tests.
- Selenium script development is more akin to application development. Writing Cucumber scripts is similar to organizing the documentation of a procedure or piece of functionality.
- Selenium is a collection of tools or a group of computer programs. Each tool has a distinct function that needs to be tested. Selenium WebDriver, for instance, is used to test Web applications on various platforms and browsers. For each supported platform, the file must be written using the terms that have been defined in Cucumber.
- While developing in Selenium, it is simple to spot syntax errors, whereas when writing in Cucumber, they are not caught.
- Selenium and Cucumber are two distinct things that operate and are used in different ways.
- The Selenium tool is currently the most popular tool for UI automation of browsers, and it is used to automate the manually performed actions on browsers.
- You can use cucumber to implement behavior-driven development (BDD). With BDD, you can write the scenarios in the kind of straightforward language that you find most readable for both technical and non-technical readers.
- Perl, PHP, Python,.NET, Java, and other programming languages are supported by the Selenium-Cucumber framework.
Cucumber Framework Interview Questions
1. What is cucumber testing?
Cucumber is a tool that testers use to build test cases for analyzing program behavior. Automating acceptance tests using logical, customer-friendly language is crucial. It is primarily used to create acceptance tests for web apps based on the behavior of their features.
2. What is BDD cucumber framework?
A testing tool for behavior-driven development (BDD) is cucumber. The main objective of the BDD framework is to bring together a variety of project responsibilities, including quality assurance, developers, and business analysts, to comprehend the application without delving too deeply into the technical elements.
3. What is feature file in cucumber?
The Cucumber tests can be started by using a Feature File. In this document, you will use descriptive language to describe your tests (Like English). Cucumber depends on it because it can be used as both a live document and an automation test script. A scenario may be included in a feature file, as well as multiple scenarios, but most frequently a list of scenarios is included. Make a file of this type now.
Right-click on the Feature folder and choose New > File.
You must ensure that the stories (or features, as they are known in Cucumber) have the ‘feature’ file extension in order for Cucumber to recognize them automatically. For instance, in this instance, my user story is called “Login_Test.feature.” Typically, each “feature” file only contains one feature.
Write the first script for a cucumber. The scenario would appear as follows in BDD terms.
Feature: Login Action
- Successful Login with Valid Credentials
- Given User is on Home Page
- When User Navigate to the LogIn Page
- And User enters UserName and Password
- Then Message is displayed Login Successfully
- Successful LogOut
- When User LogOut from the Application
- Then Message displayed LogOut Successfully
- This is a simple test in cucumber.
Cucumber Interview Questions and Answers
1.What exactly is Gherkin Language?
The readable nature of Gherkin makes it possible to define business activity without getting bogged down in implementation details. For defining specifications tests in Cucumber format, it is a domain-specific language. It aids users in removing logic from behaviour testing by providing straightforward descriptions of use cases.
2.What is the principle of Behaviour Driven Development?
Test-Driven Development (TDD) and Acceptance Test-Driven Development (ATDD) practices have been combined to form Behaviour Driven Development (BDD) (ATDD). By using the “Five Whys” principle to ensure that each proposed user story’s purpose is directly related to business outcomes, BDD complements TDD and ATDD. A method for discovering the cause-and-effect relationships at the heart of a problem is the five whys iterative interrogative approach. This method’s main goal is to repeatedly ask “Why?” in order to identify the root cause of a flaw or problem. The next question is built on the foundation of each response.
3.What are the primary keywords terms for cucumber?
The following are Cucumber’s primary keywords:
Feature: The Feature keyword’s objective is to compile pertinent scenarios and offer a high-level explanation of a software feature.
Rule: The keyword Rule is used to specify a single business rule that needs to be adhered to. It expands on the details of a feature.
Example: This serves as a concrete example of a business rule. There are several steps in it.
Given: The scenario’s scene is described by the given steps, which serve as the system’s initial context. Typically, it alludes to a former occurrence.
When: when is used to describe an event or an action. It might be a user interacting with the system or an event produced by another system.
Then: Steps are used to denote an expected outcome or result.
Background: You can better understand the subsequent situations by providing some background information. It may include one or more Given steps, which are executed before each scenario but before any Before hooks.
4. What are the requirements for executing Cucumber Web test cases?
To run a Cucumber Web test case successfully, we need the bare minimum of conditions:
- For the programming language we’ll be using, the compiler and the development kit. Using Java as our programming language, for instance, requires JDK and JRE.
- A programming environment called an IDE (Integrated Development Environment). Eclipse is an example.
- To perform tasks like coding compilation, jar packaging, and source code creation, create tools. Maven and Gradle, as examples.
5. What do Step Definitions mean with regard to Cucumber?
Programming code and Gherkin steps are linked by step definitions. The steps definition file contains a mapping between each step of the scenario defined in the feature file and a code for the function that will be executed. A step definition executes the task that the step is supposed to complete. Step definitions therefore permanently link the specification to the implementation.
6. What exactly are hooks in Cucumber?
In the Cucumber execution cycle, hooks are code blocks that run either before or after each Cucumber scenario. This helps us reduce code redundancy and better manage the development workflow. Similar to a test setup, setting up the web driver and ending the web driver session. It’s best to handle setup and cleanup once when dealing with various scenarios. Utilizing hooks helps with optimization.
In some circumstances, it might be necessary to fulfill certain prerequisites, such as running the program, establishing a database connection, getting the test data ready, etc. A number of post-conditions must also be met, including cutting off the database connection, closing the browser, updating the test data, and logging out of the application.
Anywhere in the project or step definition layers can use the methods @Before and @After to define hooks. Before the hook is executed, it precedes the execution of any other test scenarios, and after the hook is executed, it follows the conclusion of all test scenarios.
7. Why are tags important in Cucumber, and what are they?
It seems straightforward when there are only one, two, or possibly five situations in a feature file. However, in practice, this is not the case. For each feature that is being tested, we may have 10, 20, or even more scenarios in a single feature file. They might represent different objectives (regression test, smoke test), viewpoints (developer, QA, business analyst), and statuses (ready for execution, work in progress).
Cucumber tags give users a way to run scenarios from runner files in a particular order. Each circumstance can be given a helpful tag. We can later specify which tag Cucumber should run, and consequently which scenario(s), in the runner file. The first letter of a tag is “@.” After “@,” you can add any pertinent text to define your tag. For instance, “@InitialTest”
8. Describe Cucumber Dry Run.
The Cucumber dry run’s goals are to compile the Step Definition and Feature files and check for compilation errors. Value of dry run could be either true or false. In the Test Runner Class file, the dry run variable defaults to having the value false.
Cucumber will review each step in the Feature file if the dry run value is true. The implementation code of steps from the Feature file will also be checked within the Step Definition file
A message is thrown if any step in the feature file does not have an equivalent step defined in the step definition file. The test parameters are set using the dry run parameter of the @CucumberOptions.
9. What exactly does Cucumber’s profile mean?
Cucumber profiles make it simple to define groups of tests in a feature file when testing a feature so that we can choose to run only a portion of them rather than all of them. It was developed to make time-saving easier. A cucumber.yml file allows the user to reuse cucumber flags that are frequently used.
10. How does Cucumber handle code comments? What purpose do comments serve?
A line of code marked with a comment is one that is meant for documentation rather than execution. Whether it’s a feature file or a step definition file, it should be more readable and clear. Therefore, it’s crucial to use/insert comments throughout the file in the appropriate locations. This is helpful for debugging the code as well.
Cucumber feature files allow for the addition of comments at any time. Simply start the statement with the “#” sign to add comments.
The standards for commenting vary between programming languages. See how Cucumber responds to the circumstance:
- If you’re using Java as your platform for Step Definition File, your comments should begin with “/.”
- For a feature file, all we have to do is type # before we begin our comment.
BDD Cucumber Interview Questions
1. Describe Regular Expressions.
A regular expression is a pattern that can be used to characterise a body of text. One literal character is present in the common Regular expression.
2. Classify the test harness.
The context setup, interacting with the browser, and cleaning up the step definition files can all be handled independently thanks to a test harness for Cucumber and RSpec.
3. What two files are necessary to execute a cucumber test?
In order to run a cucumber test, feature files and step definition files are used.
4. How do you define a step?
The Test Case Steps in the feature files are converted to code using step definition. It executes the procedures using an application under test (AUT) and validates the outcomes in comparison to the desired outcomes. It must be related to the specified component in a feature in order for step definition to be executed.
5. What language is used in the feature file to express scenarios?
In feature files and ruby files, scenarios are expressed using the Gherkin language, which also includes hidden automation testing for the scenarios’ sequence.
6. What is enclosed in a cucumber features/support file?
Ruby code is present in the features/support file. These files, which can be used to configure the environment, load before the step definitions.
Selenium Cucumber Interview Questions
1. What are the constraints of selenium?
It is only a web-based test automation tool. Captcha and OTP validation are not possible for Windows applications.
There are no integrated report generation systems, and no tool-based UI, such as UFT, is provided. Everything is controlled by code.
2. How do findelement and findelements differ?
findelement returns a single object found using the given locator. findelements returns a list of all objects discovered using the specified locator.
3. How can I use Selenium to return to the previous URL on a webpage?
To return to the previous page, use navigate.back()
4. How should I handle window-related pop-ups?
To handle window-related pop-ups, we can use the AutoIT or Robot classes.
5. How do I use Selenium to take a screenshot of an entire page?
We can take a screenshot file scrfile = ((Takescreenshot)driver) using the getScreenShotAs method. getScreenShotAs(outputType.FILE);
6. What is the cucumber parameterization symbol?
Cucumber uses the pipe symbol (I) to specify parameter values.
7. What is the purpose of the scenario outline in Cucumber?
This is useful when running the same scenario for multiple sets of data and the test steps remain the same. The keyword “Example” must be followed by the scenario outline, which specifies the set of values for each parameter.
8. How do I accept or reject a web alert pop-up?
The web alert pop-up can be accepted or rejected by using the alert class.
driver.switch To()alert().accept(); driver.switch To()alert().dismiss();
9. What do before and after hooks mean?
before execute before the entire feature file execution. after runs after the execution of the entire feature file.
10. How can I click on an object without using the Selenium click method?
FAQ for Cucumber Interview Questions
1. What is the command line procedure for running a Cucumber test?
You must have Cucumber installed on your computer in order to run a Cucumber test from the command line. You can then use the following command to open the directory containing your feature file:
- [Feature_file_Name] feature
- You would issue the following command, for instance, if your feature file is called login.feature
- Feature login for cucumber
- The scenarios in the feature file will be run as a result, and a report of the results will be generated.
2. What function does a regular expression in Cucumber serve?
Cucumber uses regular expressions to compare a scenario’s steps to the step definition file’s implementation of those steps. Cucumber uses regular expressions, a type of pattern used to match a string of text, to compare the text of a scenario’s step to the implementation of that step in the step definition file.
The importance of a regular expression in Cucumber is that it offers a way to match scenario steps to how they are implemented, enabling automation of application testing.
3. How does Cucumber handle page object models (POM)?
Your automation tests will be better organized and more maintainable if you use the Page Object Model (POM) design pattern.
Cucumber allows you to implement POM by defining the interactions with the page elements in a class that is created specifically for each web page in your application.
Take the following code as an illustration:
require 'page-object' class LoginPage include PageObject text_field(:email, id: 'email') text_field(:password, id: 'password') button(:login, id: 'login_button') def login_with(email, password) self.email = email self.password = password login end end
The email, password, and login button elements on the login page are defined interactions in this example by the LoginPage class. To log in using a specific email address and password, use the login with the method.
4. What function does Cucumber’s continuous integration (CI) pipeline serve?
When changes are made to the codebase, an automated process called a Continuous Integration (CI) pipeline builds, tests and deploys your code.
A CI pipeline in the Cucumber context can assist with:
- Automate the creation and testing of your code to save time and lower the possibility of human error.
- To find and address issues early in the development process, give ongoing feedback on the quality of your code.
- Make sure your code is always in a release-ready state to speed up time to market.
- To increase the reliability of your tests, provide a consistent and repeatable testing process.
Consider the CI pipeline shown below, for instance:
- A version control system has the code committed to it (e.g. Git).
- The version control system triggers the CI tool (such as Jenkins), which then downloads the most recent code.
- The code is created and the Cucumber tests are run by the CI tool.
- A report that gives a thorough overview of the test results is produced by the CI tool.
- Any failures are reported to the development team by the CI tool and a link to the report for additional research.
- You can increase the effectiveness and dependability of your testing procedure in Cucumber by using a CI pipeline, which ultimately aids in raising the caliber of your code.
5. What distinguishes a global hook from a background hook in Cucumber?
- In Cucumber, a background is a section of the feature file that includes actions that apply to all of the scenarios in that feature file. Before each scenario in the feature file, the background steps are carried out.
- In Cucumber, a global hook is a hook that is defined externally to any feature file and is run prior to or following each scenario in all feature files.
- The scope of a background hook and a global hook is where they most significantly diverge. A global hook is applicable to all feature files, whereas a background is specific to one feature file.
- Backgrounds and global hooks are both helpful for configuring and disabling the test environment, but it’s crucial to pick the right one depending on how much setup and clean-up are needed.
It’s also very easy to understand, has lots of potential for new features, and integrating Cucumber with Selenium or other third-party tools/jars, etc. is relatively simple. The Cucumber Interview Questions provided here are intended to aid in your interview preparation.